- (Non-polar) covalent bonds form between atoms of identical electronegativity. The atoms will share electrons to complete their valence shells.
- Ionic bonds form between atoms of very different electronegativity. Because one type atom is pulling electrons so much harder than the other, it actually “steals” the other atom’s electrons until each has a full valence shell. The more electronegative atom(s) is now a negatively charged ion, while the less electronegative atom(s) has become a positively charged ion. These ions attract each other electrostatically because they have opposite charges.
- Polar covalent bonds form between atoms of different, but similar, electronegativity. Since one atom is only pulling a bit harder than the other, they will share electrons, but share them unequally.
- Metallic bonds form between atoms with low electronegativity (metals). Postively charged ions are held together by a sea of electrons flowing around them.
- Intermolecular forces exist between charged ends of molecules. Ionic charges are the highest, followed by dipoles, followed by induced dipoles.
- The molar mass of a compound is the sum of the molar masses of its constitutents.
- Predict, based on electronegativity, whether two atoms will form a ionic, covalent, metallic, or polar-covalent bond.
- Based on the polarity and/or bond type of a compound, predict the level of intermolecular forces in it.
- Given a chemical formula for an inorganic compound, determine the compound’s name.
- Given a chemical formula for a compound, draw its Lewis diagram.
- Given the name of an inorganic compound, determine its chemical formula and Lewis diagram.
- Calculate the molar mass of a compound.
- Convert between mass, amount, and volume of a compound using molar mass and density ratios.
- 2a.1 Bonding & electronegativity
- 2a.2 Intermolecular forces
- 2a.3 Inorganic nomenclature (long!)
- 2a.4 Lewis structures (has answer key)
Projects & Labs
- Lab 2a.0: Understanding molar mass (theoretical lab)
- Lab 2a.1: Intermolecular forces (exp. 1&4 only, assignment may be modified)
- Lab 2b.1: Mole rice lab
- Lab 2b.2: Moles! (Treasure Hunt)
- Lab 2b.3: Size of an aluminum atom
- Lab 2b.4: empirical formula (includes worksheet)
- Quiz 2a: bonding & inorganic nomenclature
- Quiz 2b: unit conversions: mass, volume, amount
- Test 2: Bonding