Arctic Region – by Josh and Sterling

How The Arctic Region was formed

The Arctic region consist of the Arctic Ocean and also consists of a ice-covered ocean surrounded by treeless permafrost. The arctic region is located around the Earth’s North Pole, opposite of Antarctic region around the south pole.

Where is it

The Arctic is located between 66.5’N and the North pole. It covers the Arctic ocean and the land areas in parts of Canada, Finland, Greenland, Iceland, Norway, Russia, Sweden, and Alaska.

How it was formed
Fold mountains are caused by two plates colliding into each other which causes the plates to push upward creating mountains which makes the mountains in the Arctic. Erosion is on of the ways that the glacier forms the landscape, as they carve and scrape away at soil and rock.

What is it?
Eskers, Glaciers, Tundra, fold mountains, and permafrost play a big roll in the arctic because they are all the main physical features in the the Arctic region. An esker is a long winded ridge with gravel and sand. eskers are formed by glacial-meltwater. Glacier is snow piling over the years until is a big form of dense ice. Permafrost is permanently frozen soil that is only in cold regions like the polar regions, it only exist in cold places and never grows in changing season so it doesn’t thaw out. The Tundra is cold flat land in the arctic region of Europe, Northern Asia, and North America. It has a frozen ground because of all the permafrost underneath the ground. In the summer the top layer of soil is thawed out and can grow mosses, lichens, grasses, and small  shrubs.A Fold mountain is two plates folding towards each other which causes the earth to push upward creating a mountain.

Important Facts About The Arctic

-Coldest biome.

-Dry, cold, windy.

-Summer brings burst of wildflowers.

-Average temperature can drop below -50’C to the high of 10’C.

-summer season is about 50 to 60 days with a 24 hour sunlight.

-Arctic has been changing recently due to global warming, and a result is less sno’w cover, and warmer temperature.


While the Arctic is not well established or known for Terrestrial resources, it has a vast amount of mineral reserves and aquatic products. The areas in the crown of Russia are some of the richest deposits for many of the most essential materials, and the largest fishery(ies) in the world is/are located within the North-East Atlantic. Despite this, large amounts industrial activity are incredibly dangerous due to the region’s inaccessibility, and cannot be easily exploited, making operations far more expensive than normal. The number of Mining routes are also fewer and often totally claimed.

As stated already the two major areas of business are aquatic products and mineral resources. Here are some facts about the aquatic part. Greenland holds 10% of all Earth’s fresh water reserves. Almost all frozen in ice. Efforts to extract it are already being made. What’s more, hydro power is becoming more popular in Northern regions as it is less expensive and often more efficient. Fishing and other operation brings in charr, crab, cod, shrimp, trout and even today, whales.

Major minerals found can be easily researched with this unbelievably helpful chart, but just as a few examples, what is found are, oil, natural gas, gold, coal, tin, diamonds, nickel, tungsten, cadmium, uranium, vermiculite and aluminum. Products include stainless steel and alloys that are made from these metals and plastic and fuel from oil and furthermore, solder coming from tin, batteries from nickel and cadmium, electronics from gold and tungsten and acoustic panels from vermiculite. Fact; the Arctic rim has an estimated amount of 780 billion metric tonnes of various kinds of coal.

(below, Russian oil rig)